HB0183

HOUSE BILL 183

55th legislature - STATE OF NEW MEXICO - first session, 2021

INTRODUCED BY

Roger Montoya

 

 

 

 

 

AN ACT

RELATING TO CHILDREN; ELIMINATING CERTAIN FINES AND FEES RELATING TO CRIMES COMMITTED BY JUVENILES.

 

BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF NEW MEXICO:

         SECTION 1. Section 30-31-23 NMSA 1978 (being Laws 1972, Chapter 84, Section 23, as amended) is amended to read:

         "30-31-23. CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES--POSSESSION PROHIBITED.--

                   A. It is unlawful for a person intentionally to possess a controlled substance unless the substance was obtained pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of professional practice or except as otherwise authorized by the Controlled Substances Act. It is unlawful for a person intentionally to possess a controlled substance analog.

                   B. A person who violates this section with respect to:

                               (1) up to one-half ounce of marijuana shall be issued a penalty assessment, pursuant to Section [3 of this 2019 act] 31-19A-1 NMSA 1978 and is subject to a fine of fifty dollars ($50.00);

                               (2) more than one-half ounce but up to and including one ounce of marijuana is, for the first offense, guilty of a petty misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) or more than one hundred dollars ($100) and by imprisonment for not more than fifteen days, and, for a second or subsequent offense, is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term of less than one year, or both;

                               (3) more than one ounce but less than eight ounces of marijuana is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term of less than one year, or both; or

                               (4) eight ounces or more of marijuana is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978.

                   C. A person who violates this section with respect to:

                               (1) one ounce or less of synthetic cannabinoids is, for the first offense, guilty of a petty misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) or more than one hundred dollars ($100) and by imprisonment for not more than fifteen days, and, for the second and subsequent offenses, is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both;

                               (2) more than one ounce and less than eight ounces of synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both; or

                               (3) eight ounces or more of synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978.

                   D. A minor who violates this section with respect to the substances listed in this subsection is guilty of a petty misdemeanor and, notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 32A-1-5 and 32A-2-19 NMSA 1978, shall be [punished by a fine not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100) or] required to perform no more than forty-eight hours of community service. For the third or subsequent violation by a minor of this section with respect to those substances, the provisions of Section 32A-2-19 NMSA 1978 shall govern punishment of the minor. As used in this subsection, "minor" means a person who is less than eighteen years of age. The provisions of this subsection apply to the following substances:

                               (1) synthetic cannabinoids;

                               (2) any of the substances listed in Paragraphs (20) through (25) of Subsection C of Section 30-31-6 NMSA 1978; or

                               (3) a substance added to Schedule I by a rule of the board adopted on or after March 31, 2011 if the board determines that the pharmacological effect of the substance, the risk to the public health by abuse of the substance and the potential of the substance to produce psychic or physiological dependence liability is similar to the substances described in Paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection.

                   E. Except as provided in Subsections B, C and G of this section, and for those substances listed in Subsection F of this section, a person who violates this section with respect to any amount of any controlled substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV or a controlled substance analog of a substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both.

                   F. A person who violates this section with respect to phencyclidine as enumerated in Schedule III or a controlled substance analog of phencyclidine; methamphetamine, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule II or a controlled substance analog of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; flunitrazepam, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of flunitrazepam, including naturally occurring metabolites, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; gamma hydroxybutyric acid and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; gamma butyrolactone and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of gamma butyrolactone, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; 1-4 butane diol and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of 1-4 butane diol, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; or a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II or a controlled substance analog of a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978.

                   G. Except for a minor as defined in Subsection D of this section, a person who violates Subsection A of this section while within a posted drug-free school zone, excluding private property residentially zoned or used primarily as a residence and excluding a person in or on a motor vehicle in transit through the posted drug-free school zone, with respect to:

                               (1) one ounce or less of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is, for the first offense, guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both, and for the second or subsequent offense, is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978;

                               (2) more than one ounce and less than eight ounces of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978;

                               (3) eight ounces or more of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a third degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978;

                               (4) any amount of any other controlled substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV or a controlled substance analog of a substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV, except phencyclidine as enumerated in Schedule III, a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II or a controlled substance analog of a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II, is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978; and

                               (5) phencyclidine as enumerated in Schedule III, a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II, a controlled substance analog of phencyclidine or a controlled substance analog of a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II is guilty of a third degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978."

         SECTION 2. Section 31-15-12 NMSA 1978 (being Laws 1973, Chapter 156, Section 12, as amended) is amended to read:

         "31-15-12. EXPLANATION OF RIGHTS--WAIVER OF COUNSEL-- APPLICATION FEE--INDIGENCY DETERMINATION.--

                   A. If any person charged with any crime or a delinquent act that carries a possible sentence of imprisonment appears in any court without counsel, the judge shall inform [him] the person of [his] the person's right:

                               (1) to confer with the district public defender; and

                               (2) if [he] the person is financially unable to obtain counsel, to be represented by the district public defender at all stages of the proceedings against [him] the person.

                   B. Following notification of any person under Subsection A of this section, the judge shall notify the district public defender and continue the proceedings until the person has applied with the district public defender.

                   C. A person shall pay a [non-refundable] nonrefundable application fee of ten dollars ($10.00) at the time the person applies with the public defender for representation. The fee shall be deposited in the public defender automation fund. The public defender shall determine if the person is indigent and unable to pay the fee, subject to review by the court. When the person remains in custody and is unable to pay the fee, the court may waive payment of the fee. A child subject to the provisions of the Delinquency Act shall not be required to pay the application fee.

                   D. Peace officers shall notify the district public defender of any person not represented by counsel who is being forcibly detained and who is charged with, or under suspicion of, the commission of any crime that carries a possible sentence of imprisonment, unless the person has previously appeared in court upon that charge.

                   E. Any person entitled to representation by the district public defender may intelligently waive [his] the right to representation. The waiver may be for all or any part of the proceedings. The waiver shall be in writing and countersigned by a district public defender."

         SECTION 3. Section 32A-1-19 NMSA 1978 (being Laws 1993, Chapter 77, Section 28, as amended) is amended to read:

         "32A-1-19. COURT COSTS AND EXPENSES.--

                   A. The following expenses shall be a charge upon the funds of the court upon their certification by the court:

                               (1) reasonable compensation for services and related expenses for counsel appointed by the court;

                               (2) reasonable compensation for services and related expenses of a guardian ad litem or a child's attorney appointed by the court; and

                               (3) the expenses of service of summonses, notices, subpoenas, traveling expenses of witnesses and other like expenses incurred in any proceeding under the Children's Code.

                   B. [The court may order the parent or other person legally obligated to care for and support a child to pay all or part of the costs and expenses pursuant to Subsection A of this section when:

                               (1) the child has been found to be a delinquent child, a child of a family in need of court-ordered services, an abused or neglected child or a child with a mental illness or a developmental disability;

                               (2) the parent or other person legally obligated to care for and support a child is given notice and a hearing to determine the parent or person's financial ability to pay the costs and expenses; and

                               (3) the court finds that the parent or person is able to pay all or part of the costs and expenses.

         Unless otherwise ordered, payment shall be made to the court for remittance to those to whom compensation is due or, if costs and expenses have been paid by the court, to the court for remittance to the state. The court may prescribe the manner of payment.] A child, the family of a child or a person legally obligated to care for and support a child who is subject to the provisions of the Delinquency Act shall not be required to pay any court costs, expenses pursuant to Subsection A of this section, fees or fines.

                   C. Whenever legal custody of an adjudicated child is vested in someone other than the child's parents, including an agency, institution or department of this state, if the court, after notice to the parents or other persons legally obligated to support the child and after a hearing, finds that the parents or other legally obligated persons are financially able to pay all or part of the costs and expenses of the support and treatment, the court may order the parents or other legally obligated persons to pay to the custodian in the manner the court directs a reasonable sum that will cover all or part of the expenses of the support and treatment of the child subsequent to the entry of the custo